[56][6] While the practice from ancient times had been to curtail sea travel between October and April, due in part to the lack of dependable clear skies during the Mediterranean winter, the prolongation of the sailing season resulted in a gradual, but sustained increase in shipping movement; by around 1290 the sailing season could start in late January or February, and end in December. [6] Yet only in 1906 was the German inventor Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe (1872–1931) able to build the first practical gyrocompass. [83], In 1933 Tuomas Vohlonen, a surveyor by profession, applied for a patent for a unique method of filling and sealing a lightweight celluloid compass housing or capsule with a petroleum distillate to dampen the needle and protect it from shock and wear caused by excessive motion. Dry compasses begin appearing around 1300 in Medieval Europe and the Medieval Islamic world. [3][4][5] The first usage of a compass recorded in Western Europe and the Islamic world occurred around 1190.[6][7]. Lensatic Compass [6] Other techniques included sampling mud from the seafloor (China),[7] analyzing the flight path of birds, and observing wind, sea debris, and sea state (Polynesia and elsewhere). Cloudy skies prohibited its use in European theatres.   the ferromagnetic effects and [36] In the given example, the large mountain in the second photo was selected as the target destination on the map.

You can also read our article, How to Use a Compass. [67], Evidence for the orientation of buildings by the means of a magnetic compass can be found in 12th-century Denmark: one fourth of its 570 Romanesque churches are rotated by 5–15 degrees clockwise from true east–west, thus corresponding to the predominant magnetic declination of the time of their construction. A magnetic compass is made by placing a bit of magnetized iron or steel in a setting of low friction so that it is allowed to move about freely. A thumb compass is a type of compass commonly used in orienteering, a sport in which map reading and terrain association are paramount. Imperial Russia used a system derived by dividing the circumference of a circle into chords of the same length as the radius. The most common type of compass is a magnetic compass, which is used to ascertain the direction of magnetic north. They also require a power source, making reliability an issue.

The glass-covered box (or bowl) contains a suspended gimbal within a binnacle. Some compasses include magnets which can be adjusted to compensate for external magnetic fields, making the compass more reliable and accurate.


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