National progressivism was nearly at high tide, and a large group of Republican progressives, called “insurgents,” sat in both houses of Congress. Congressional seat gain figures only reflect the results of the regularly-scheduled elections, and do not take special elections into account. 1912 Election Results Taft vs Wilson vs Roosvelt When Roosevelt had left the White House in 1908, he was confident that William H. Taft would be a worthy successor. Roosevelt's candidacy finished second in the popular vote and the electoral college, the only time a third party candidate accomplished either feat. Who was “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen”? (2001). James S. Sherman was easily renominated. Election Notes: In California, the direct election of the thirteen presidential electors combined with the closeness of the race resulted in a split between the Democratic and Progressive electors: eleven for Roosevelt and two for Wilson. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, United States History - Election of 1912: The Bull Moose Party Makes it a Three-Way Race, Maps of World - U.S. Presidential Election 1912, United States presidential election of 1908, United States presidential election of 1916, Presidency of the United States of America. Amidst a division between incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt, the Democratic Party won the Presidency and both chambers of Congress, the first time they accomplished that feat since the 1892 election. They found their leader in Roosevelt, who had become increasingly alienated from Taft and who made a whirlwind campaign for the presidential nomination in the winter and spring of 1912. Meanwhile, the Democrats had swept the 1910 congressional and gubernatorial elections, and after the disruption of the Republican Party in the spring of 1912 it was obvious that almost any passable Democrat could win the presidency in that year. When the measure that emerged from Congress increased rates, Republican insurgents and a majority of Americans were outraged, but Taft signed the bill and called it the best tariff law the Republicans had ever enacted. Wilson's election made him the first Democratic president since Grover Cleveland left office in 1897. Omissions? Test your knowledge of U.S. presidents and first ladies with this in-depth quiz. “The Right of the People to Rule,” speech given by Theodore Roosevelt as he campaigned for the U.S. presidency, 1912. The following year they bitterly opposed Taft’s measure for tariff reciprocity with Canada; it passed with Democratic support in Congress, only to go down to defeat at the hands of the Canadian electorate. At first, Theodore Roosevelt, who was commander-in-chief from 1901 to 1909, seemed an unlikely candidate for the 1912 presidential election. The election was largely between Roosevelt and Wilson. Taking control of the president’s railroad-regulation measure, they added new provisions that greatly increased the Interstate Commerce Commission’s authority. [3] Socialist union leader Eugene Debs, running his fourth campaign, took six percent of the vote. Taft’s 8 electoral votes represented the worst performance by an incumbent seeking reelection. The 1912 United States presidential election was the 32nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1912. Conflicts and misunderstandings over conservation and legislative procedure caused the rift between Taft Republicans and the insurgents to grow. But Taft and conservative Republicans controlled the powerful state organizations and the Republican National Committee, and when the Republicans gathered at their national convention in Chicago in June 1912 it proved a bitter, divisive affair. Shortly after the election of 1904, he announced that he would not be a candidate four years later—though he was so much the idol of the masses that he could easily have gained the Republican nomination in 1908. 1912 was the only presidential election in which a third-party candidate finished second. Roosevelt left the Republican Party after an unsuccessful challenge to Taft at the 1912 Republican National Convention. His highest popular vote total came in 1920, when he received about 915,000 votes. Roosevelt and the Bull Moose movement stressed its progressive, reform credentials, even backing women’s suffrage. The incumbent, Taft, was never really a contender. My hat is in the ring, Roosevel… Wilson, born in Virginia, thus became the first Southern-born president elected since the American Civil War (1861–65). In the Presidential election, Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey defeated Republican President William Howard Taft and former president and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt. In 1912, a rift in the Republican Party paved the way for the election of Woodrow Wilson. Theodore Roosevelt (left) and his successor, William Howard Taft, 1912. Page 2 » The Democrats emerged from their convention in strong shape, given that Wilson was, in effect, facing two Republicans. Debs actually earned nearly one million votes in the election. Amidst a division between incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt, the Democratic Party won the Presidency and both chambers of Congress, the first time they accomplished that feat since the 1892 election. Elections, 4th ed. The elector whom received the most votes was an elector for Roosevelt. United States presidential election of 1912, American presidential election held on November 5, 1912, in which Democrat Woodrow Wilson defeated Bull Moose (Progressive) candidate and former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt and Republican incumbent president William Howard Taft. United States presidential election of 1912. Hiram Johnson, the reform Republican governor of California, became Roosevelt’s running mate. His troubles began when he called Congress into special session in 1909 to take up tariff reform. United States presidential election of 1912, American presidential election held on November 5, 1912, in which Democrat Woodrow Wilson defeated Bull Moose (Progressive) candidate and former Republican president Theodore Roosevelt and Republican incumbent president William Howard Taft. For Taft, his single objective in the 1912 campaign was to defeat Roosevelt. [3] At the 1912 Democratic National Convention, Wilson took the nomination on the 46th ballot, defeating Speaker Champ Clark and several other candidates. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Democrats made major gains in the House, further strengthening their majority, while the new Progressive Party won ten seats. 1912 United States House of Representatives elections, 1912 and 1913 United States Senate elections, 1912 United States gubernatorial elections, "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives", "Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present",, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 May 2020, at 14:14. November 8 – U.S. presidential election, 1912: New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson wins over former president Theodore Roosevelt, and incumbent president William Howard Taft. Roosevelt swept the presidential primaries, even in Taft’s home state of Ohio. Welcome: Arizona and New Mexico become states during this election cycle Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs received about 900,000 votes, but no Electoral Votes; Taft's 8 Electoral Votes fewest ever for an incumbent This guide provides access to materials related to “1912 Presidential Election” in the Chronicling America digital collection of historic newspapers. Convinced that the bosses had stolen the nomination from him, Roosevelt led his followers out of the Republican convention. Woodrow Wilson shaking hands during his presidential campaign, Prevailing at the 1912 convention after a hard struggle against better-entrenched rivals, Wilson entered into an exciting three-way race for president. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The results of the 1912 U.S. presidential election are provided in the table. [4], In the last Senate election before the ratification of the 17th Amendment, Democrats made moderate gains and won control of the chamber for the first time since the 1892 election.[5]. It was the first time in 20 years that a Democrat won the White House . By 1910 the Republican insurgents were clearly in the ascendancy in Congress. The Presidential Election of 1912 in Cartoons - Page 1 From the Marc H. Miller Collection of Theodore Roosevelt Cartoons. After backing his close friend William Howard Taft to serve as his successor, he disappeared on an extended hunting trip to Africa. After former President Theodore Roosevelt failed to … Roosevelt felt assured that President Taft would continue his policies. Results of the American presidential election, 1912. Roosevelt wanted to preserve the trusts but regulate them. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Democratic gain   Democratic hold. The 1912 United States elections elected the members of the 63rd United States Congress, occurring during the Fourth Party System. 1912 Election Facts. Campaigning strenuously on a platform that he called the New Nationalism, Roosevelt demanded effective control of big business through a strong federal commission, radical tax reform, and a whole series of measures to put the federal government squarely into the business of social and economic reform. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. These Republicans, like a majority of Americans, demanded such reforms as tariff reductions, an income tax, the direct election of senators, and even stricter railroad and corporation regulations. The real contest, however, was between Roosevelt and Wilson for control of the progressive majority. Between them, Roosevelt and Taft secured 7.6 million votes—1.3 million more than Wilson—but Roosevelt won only 88 electoral votes, and Taft won only 8. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Following the 1910 census, 41 seats were added to the House, setting the House at 435 seats. Ultimately, Wilson secured the Democratic nomination on the 46th ballot, and Thomas R. Marshall was chosen as his running mate. Sources: Electoral and popular vote totals based on data from the United States Office of the Federal Register and Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. But Roosevelt became increasingly disillusioned with Taft and eventually decided to mount a challenge for the next Republican nomination. Taft, Roosevelt, and Wisconsin Sen. Robert M. La Follette, a leading reformer, sought the nomination, but so complete were Taft’s supporters’ control over the party machinery that delegate challenges made by Roosevelt were all beaten back—leading Roosevelt to refuse to have his name entered into nomination.


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